Asbsestos Related Diseases Non-Gynaecological Cancers and Some Benign Diseases

Asbsestos Related Diseases Non-Gynaecological Cancers and Some Benign Diseases

Tumor Biology – Vol. 17, No. 1, 1996  by Assoc. Prof. Halis Simsek, MD, Section of Gastroenterology, Hacettepe University Medical School, Resat Nuri sokak No: 21/13, Yukariayranci, Ankara, 06100 (Turkey).  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – Elevated levels of CA 125 have been shown to be present in the serum of patients with ovarian carcinoma, non-gynaecological cancers and some benign diseases. However, the value of CA 125 in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma has not been studied in detail. Therefore, 7 patients with diffuse malignant mesothelioma were included in this study. Median age was 52.4 (range 16-73), and 6 of them were women. The mean serum CA 125 level was 308kU/l (range 8-1,300 kU/1). Serum CA 125 concentrations were found to be elevated in all 6 female patients. In 3 patients, serum CA 125 levels were followed prospectively and showed a very close correlation with the response to chemotherapy. In 2 responder patients, initially elevated CA 125 levels returned to normal during remission after chemotherapy. In 1 non-responder patient, the serum CA 125 level continued to rise. In conclusion, the serum CA 125 level might be helpful in the diagnosis and follow-up of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.”

Another interesting study is called, “High-performance capillary electrophoretic analysis of hyaluronan in effusions from human malignant Mesothelioma” – Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications – Volume 697, Issues 1-2, 12 September 1997, Pages 277-281 by Nikos K. Karamanosa and Anders Hjerpeb – Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – A procedure to quantify hyaluronan in effusions from human malignant mesothelioma using a highly sensitive and reproducible high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method is presented. Following ethanol precipitation, hyaluronan and galactosaminoglycans were degraded to Δ4.5-dissacharides with a mixture of chondroitinases ABC and AC. Heparan sulphate and proteins/glycoproteins were separated by ultrafiltration on a Centricon 3 membrane, and hyaluronan-derived disaccharides were analysed by direct injection of the filtrate into a HPCE system. Determination of hyaluronan in effusions from five healthy individuals and three patients with mesothelioma gave values comparable to those found using the HPLC method. One of the advantages of the HPCE method as compared to HPLC is the low solvent consumption. The much lower detection limit (attomole level) of the HPCE method may also allow the analysis of hyaluronan content in serum. The contribution of HPCE in diagnosis of a neoplasm, such as human malignant mesothelioma, illustrates the great potential of this technique in the field of life sciences.”

Another interesting study is called, “Protein expression of the RB-related gene family and SV40 large T antigen in mesothelioma and lung cancer” – Nature Publishing Group, Basingstoke, ROYAUME-UNI  (1987) (Revue).  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – Mutational inactivation of the RB-related gene RBL2/ p130 has been reported as a common and important prognostic factor in human lung cancer. To examine the role of the RB-related gene family in lung cancer we analysed the protein expression of the RB gene in cell lines obtained from 83 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 114 patients with non-SCLC that included 21 novel lung tumor samples. While we detected five new SCLC with mutant RB [removed]RB inactivation in 75/83; 90.4%), we did not detect any RB mutations in the new non-SCLC cell lines (RB inactivation in 13/114 non-SCLC and mesothelioma; 11.4%). In addition, we detected expression of a full-length RBL1/p107 and RBL2/p130 species in every sample tested (RBL1 or RBL2 inactivation in 0/69) and confirmed that both RB-related gene products retain functional binding activity to the E1A viral oncoprotein. Since expression of SV40 Large T antigen (Tag) has been reported in a subset of human lung tumors where it may inactivate RBL1 and RBL2, we also examined mesothelioma and non-mesothelioma lung tumors for Tag expression. Although we detected a faint 85 kDa protein species using specific anti-Tag antibodies, this signal migrated slightly faster than Tag extracted from Cos7 cells and did not exhibit binding activity to the RB or RBL1 proteins. Finally, we subjected 11 lung cancer cell lines to nucleotide sequencing and did not detect mutations within the C-terminal RBL2 exons 19-22 as recently reported. While the RB/p16 tumor suppressor pathway is targeted for mutations in 100% of lung cancers, mutational inactivation of the related RBL1 and RBL2 genes is a rare event.”

Another interesting study is called, “Benign cystic mesothelioma involving the female genital tract: report of four cases” by Schneider V, Partridge JR, Gutierrez F, Hurt WG, Maizels MS, Demay RM. – Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983 Feb 1;145(3):355-9.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – Four cases of benign cystic mesothelioma are described. The disease affects young white women (mean age, 30 years), and they present with chronic pelvic pain. At laparoscopy or laparotomy, multiple cysts ranging in size from 0.5 to 4 cm in diameter and containing clear fluid are seen. The disease commonly affects the pelvic organs and/or omentum. With the electron microscope, the cell of origin of this proliferative process is shown to be the mesothelial cell. The disease has been previously described under a variety of terms. There seems to be a tendency for recurrence, but no malignant potential is apparent. Treatment may be conservative with preservation of pelvic organs. Benign cystic mesothelioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the female genital tract.”

Another interesting study is called, “Monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4: Its use in the differential diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma and carcinoma in cell blocks of malignant effusions and FNA specimens” by Dr. Brigid Maguire M.B.B.S., Darrel Whitaker Ph.D., C.F.I.A.C., F.I.M.L.S., A.A.I.M.S., Salvatore Carrello B.App.Sc., Dominic Spagnolo M.B.B.S., F.R.C.P.A. – Diagnostic Cytopathology – Volume 10, Issue 2, pages 130–134, March 1994.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – Formal sublimate-fixed cell blocks derived from 129 malignant pleural (and some peritoneal) effusions, 8 benign effusions with reactive mesothelial cells, and 23 FNA specimens, were immunostained with monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 to assess its ability to distinguish malignant mesothelioma (MM) from carcinoma.

Only 2 of 44 (4%) well-characterized MM were Ber-EP4+, while none of 8 benign mesothelial proliferations reacted with the antibody. Fifty-seven percent of 23 pulmonary adenocarcinomas (AC) and 60% of 43 pulmonary carcinomas of all other histological types were Ber-EP4+. Of 40 metastatic AC originating from breast, gastrointestinal tract, ovary, endometrium, and kidney, 80% were Ber-EP4+. The predictive value of positive Ber-EP4 staining in distinguishing AC from MM was 96%. The predictive value of a negative Ber-EP4 in excluding MM was 70%, when the differential diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that Ber-EP4 is helpful in differentiating MM and AC if used together with other discriminating antibodies.”

We all owe a debt of gratitude to these fine researchers.  If you found any of these excerpts interesting, please read the studies in their entirety.

Monty Wrobleski is the author of this article.  For more information please click on the following links

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