Archive for the ‘Mesothelioma Disease’ Category

World Trade Center Asbestos Exposure

World Trade Center Asbestos Exposure

World Trade Center Ruins

 

After “9.11″ terrorist attack, Christine who lives not far away from the original World Trade Center in New York breaks asthma for more than twice per night, His wife also suffers from intolerable headache, finally they have to move out.

 

However, every time on his way back to the old home for fetching letters, he will once again break asthma because of breathing in the metal taste trigger. “I have been suffering from asthma for many years, although sometimes it’s serious, but I had never suffered from so much torture. As long as I smell the weird smell floating from the ruins of the World Trade Center, I would have more asthma”.

 

World Trade Center Asbestos

 

After “9.11″ some environmental experts remind the residents living nearby the World Trade Center that they should pay attention to the harmful gases from the ruins, but New York government denied the fact that the World Trade Center ruins badly affect the surrounding environment. After hearing the experts’ advice, Christine increasingly suspects his condition is worsened by the ruins of the World Trade Center. So he invites an independent agency to test the dust floating around his old home building. The test results prove the dust out of the corridor contains World Trade Center asbestos exceeding 555 times than normal. The test also tells the asbestos fiber in the air has reached a dangerous level.

 

World Trade Center Asbestos Exposure and Mesothelioma

 Plenty of studies on asbestosis approve that individuals who develop the mesothelioma disease after the exposure to asbestos for 40 years or more take account of 90 percent of all cases. There are 75 percent of persons who worked with the toxic mineral for 20-30 years. Those who experienced 10-19 years of exposure take the proportion of 10 to 15 percent. These numbers may also vary based on the level of asbestos individual is exposed to on a daily basis.

Dependent on the Asbestos Exposure

• Individuals with high levels of exposure of a short duration

• Individuals with high levels of exposure of long duration

• Individuals with low levels of exposure of long duration

Please visit the Mesothelioma Rescue official website and know more about the Mesothelioma information and Treatment Options.


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Exposure to Pulmonary Carcinogens and Mesothelioma

Exposure to Pulmonary Carcinogens and Mesothelioma

When pieces of asbestos are inhaled or swallowed, they can lead to life threatening diseases.  To date, over 730,000 people have filed claims for asbestos related injuries in the United States alone. One interesting study that examples the link between exposure and Mesothelioma disease is called, “Analysis of asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies in tissue samples from human lung. An international interlaboratory trial.” by Gylseth B, Churg A, Davis J.M., Johnson N, Morgan A, Mowe G, Rogers A, Roggli V. – Scand J Work Environ Health. 1985 Apr;11(2):107-10.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – In order to compare methods of counting asbestos fibers in lung tissue, seven laboratories participated in an interlaboratory trial in which tissue samples from five human lungs were analyzed. In some laboratories, fiber concentrations were assessed with the light microscope and, in others, with either scanning or transmission electron microscopes. Within each laboratory the ranking of the results was similar, but there were marked differences in the absolute values obtained by the different laboratories. It is concluded that the laboratories participating in this trial appear to produce internally consistent results, but there is difficulty in directly comparing results from one laboratory to the next.”

A second study is called, “Reduced Fhit protein expression and loss of heterozygosity at FHIT gene in tumours from smoking and asbestos-exposed lung cancer patients.” By Pylkkanen L, Wolff H, Stjernvall T, Tuominen P, Sioris T, Karjalainen A, Anttila S, Husgafvel-Pursiainen K.  Int J Oncol. 2002 Feb;20(2):285-90.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – The FHIT gene, at 3p14.2, has been suggested to form a molecular target to damage induced by human lung carcinogens. We examined aberrant expression of the Fhit protein and allele loss at the FHIT gene in a series of lung cancer cases, mainly of non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) histology. We had detailed data on tobacco smoke exposure and occupational asbestos exposure available for the cases. The principal aim of the present study was to investigate whether absent or reduced Fhit expression or FHIT allele loss was associated with exposure to these pulmonary carcinogens. We detected reduced Fhit expression in 62% (33/53) of the cases analysed. Prevalence of allele loss at the FHIT locus was 22% (20/89). Reduced protein expression was common both in the asbestos-exposed (67%) and non-exposed cases (59%); [odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-4.9]. LOH frequencies differed somewhat between the two groups and were 25% vs. 16%, respectively (OR 1.8; 95% CI 0.5-5.9). Absent or reduced expression was common in smokers, with no significant difference found between current smokers and non-smokers (mainly former smokers) (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.5-4.5). NSCLCs with squamous cell histology exhibited both aberrant [removed]OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.9-10.3) and allele loss (OR 3.3, 95% CI 0.9-12.7) more frequently than adenocarcinoma. Finally, we found that FHIT allele loss was increased in stage II or more advanced disease (OR 2.5, 95% CI 0.9-7.4), and in poorly differentiated tumours (grade 3, OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.8-8.1). In conclusion, our present data support significance of FHIT inactivation in development of lung cancer.”

A third study is called, “Effects of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos on cellular uptake and metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in hamster tracheal epithelial cells.” Environ Health Perspect. 1983 September; 51: 331 by B. T. Mossman, A. Eastman, J. M. Landesman, and E. Bresnick.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma is increased substantially in asbestos workers who smoke. We used several approaches to determine possible mechanisms of synergism at the cellular level between asbestos and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a chemical carcinogen in cigarette smoke. Specifically, we hypothesized that cellular uptake and metabolism of BaP might be facilitated when the hydrocarbon was coated on asbestos. In addition, we were interested in whether asbestos, alone or in combination with BaP, caused single strand breakage of DNA in epithelial cells of the airway. UICC reference samples of crocidolite and chrysotile were coated with 3H-BaP before their addition to monolayers of hamster tracheal epithelial cells. In comparative studies, 3H-BaP at identical amounts was added to cells in culture medium. At intervals thereafter, uptake of BaP by cells was documented by scintillation spectrometry and by autoradiography. In addition, cells and media were assayed by use of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to demonstrate the water-soluble metabolites of BaP. The integrity of DNA was monitored by alkaline elution at intervals after exposure of tracheal cells to various concentrations of asbestos, BaP and BaP-coated asbestos. A rapid transfer of BaP to cells occurred after addition of BaP-coated asbestos to cultures. When BaP was adsorbed to both types of fibers before their addition to cultures, 70% of the total BaP introduced entered the cell within 1 hr; 50% remained intracellular after 8 hr.”

If you found any of these studies interesting, please read them in their entirety.  We all owe a great deal of thanks to the people who are researching these important issues.

Monty Wrobleski is the author of this article, for more information please visit the following links Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis,

Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Lawyer,

Mesothelioma Attorneys


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Evaluating Benign and Malignant Lung and Pleural Masses in Asbestosis and Mesothelioma

Evaluating Benign and Malignant Lung and Pleural Masses in Asbestosis and Mesothelioma

Exposure to asbestos in the workplace is the most common cause of Mesothelioma disease.  Continued research is necessary if we are ever to find a cure.  One interesting study is called, “Exposure to Asbestos and Human Disease.” By Becklake, MR – New England Journal of Medicine Vol. 306, no. 24, pp. 1480-1482. 1982.  Here is an excerpt: “During the past two decades, ill health resulting from exposure to asbestos has been the subject of extensive observation and research — probably more intensive than research on any other environmental agent. In the most direct target organ, the lung, in its pleural coverings, there is a wide spectrum of response after exposure; not only acute and chronic inflammatory diseases but also cancer of these organs may occur. Research has been stimulated by the belief that the more complete our understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the better will be the ability to control the continued use of this mineral in today’s complex technologic world.”

Another interesting study is called, “Analysis of amphibole asbestos in chrysotile and other minerals.” By Addison, J, Davies, LST – Annals of Occupational Hygiene [ANN. OCCUP. HYG.]. Vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 159-175. 1990.  Here is an excerpt: “Chrysotile asbestos and many other mineral raw materials contain amphibole minerals which may be asbestiform. There is currently no analytical method which will detect the presence of amphibole at sufficiently low limits to preclude the possibility of inadvertent exposure of persons handling these materials to hazardous airborne fibre concentrations. A method of chemical digestion of chrysotiles has been tested with regard to the determination of their tremolite contaminant content and this has been applied to a range of chrysotile and other minerals. The method improves the sensitivity of the amphibole analysis at least 10-fold giving detection limits of 0.01-0.05% in chrysotile by X-ray diffractometry.”

Another interesting study is called, “Computed tomography in the diagnosis of asbestos-related thoracic disease” by Gamsu, Gordon MD; Aberle, Denise R. MD; Lynch, David MD, BCh – Journal of Thoracic Imaging – January 1989 – Volume 4 – Issue 1.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has improved the radiologist’s ability to detect and potentially quantify the abnormalities of asbestos exposure. It has proved to be more sensitive than chest radiography for detecting pleural plaques and for discriminating between pleural fibrosis and extrapleural fat. HRCT is also more sensitive than chest radiography or conventional CT for detecting parenchymal abnormalities in asbestos-exposed persons. The HRCT findings that correlate with other parameters of asbestosis include (1) septal and centrilobular thickening, (2) parenchymal fibrous bands, (3) honeycomb patterns, (4) subpleural density persisting in the prone position, and (5) subpleural curvilinear lines that persist in the prone position. CT has an important role in evaluating benign and malignant lung and pleural masses in asbestosis.”

Another study is called, “Effect of Long-Term Removal of Iron from Asbestos by Desferrioxamine B on Subsequent Mobilization by Other Chelators and Induction of DNA Single-Strand Breaks” by Chao C. C. and Aust A. E. – Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics – Volume 308, Issue 1, January 1994, Pages 64-69.  Here is an excerpt: “
Abstract – The long-term removal of iron from crocidolite or amosite by desferrioxamine B (DF) at pH 7.5 or 5.0 was studied. Crocidolite or amosite (1 mg/ml) was suspended in 50 mM NaCl at pH 7.5 or 5.0 with the addition of 1 mM DF for up to 90 days. Although the rate of iron mobilization decreased with time, iron was continuously mobilized from both forms of asbestos at pH 5.0 or 7.5. The amount of iron mobilized from crocidolite was at least twice that mobilized from amosite at either pH. Iron was mobilized more rapidly from crocidolite at pH 5.0 than at 7.5 for the first 15 days, but at later times the amount being mobilized at pH 7.5 became equal to or slightly greater than that at 5.0. For amosite, the mobilization at pH 5.0 was always greater than that at pH 7.5. Next, the effect of iron removal from asbestos by DF on subsequent iron mobilization by a second chelator (EDTA or citrate) and on induction of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) was studied. Asbestos, treated for up to 15 days with DF at pH 7.5, was washed to remove ferrioxamine and excess DF, then incubated with EDTA or citrate (1 mM). The rates of iron mobilization from both forms of asbestos by a second chelator decreased as more and more iron was removed by DF. Induction of DNA SSBs also decreased, reflecting the unavailability of iron to catalyze the damage. The results suggest three things. First, if long-term mobilization of iron from asbestos occurs in vivo as has been observed in vitro, it may play a role in the long-term biological effects of asbestos. Second, more rapid mobilization of iron from asbestos fibers may occur when the fibers are phagocytized by cells and maintained in phagosomes where the pH is 4.0-5.0. Third, treatment of asbestos by iron chelators, such as DF, prior to exposure to cultured cells or whole animals, may reduce the biological effects of asbestos resulting from iron, but may not completely eliminate them.”

We all owe a debt of gratitude to these fine researchers for their hard work and dedication.  If you found any of these excerpts interesting, please read the studies in their entirety.

 

Monty Wrobleski is the author of this article, for more information please visit the following links

Depuy Hip Recall

Depuy Hip Lawsuit

Depuy Hip Recall


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Exploring the Use of Antioxidant Scavengers and Mesothelioma Asbestos Disease

Exploring the Use of Antioxidant Scavengers and Mesothelioma Asbestos Disease

Comparing and contrasting the various research into Mesothelioma disease brings some startling results.  One interesting study is called, “Oxygen radicals and asbestos-mediated disease.” By T R Quinlan, J P Marsh, Y M Janssen, P A Borm, and B T Mossman – Environ Health Perspect. 1994 December; 102(Suppl 10): 107–110.  Here is an excerpt: ” Abstract – Asbestos fibers are potent elaborators of active oxygen species whether by reactions involving iron on the surface of the fiber, or by attempted phagocytosis of fibers by cell types resident in the lung. The link between production of active oxygen species and the pathogenesis of asbestos-mediated disease has been highlighted by studies outlined here exploring the use of antioxidant scavengers which inhibit the cytotoxic effects of asbestos both in vitro and in vivo. The use of antioxidant enzymes ameliorates the induction of certain genes necessary for cell proliferation, such as ornithine decarboxylase, implicating oxidants as causative factors in some abnormal cell replicative events. Based on these observations, antioxidant enzymes likely represent an important lung defense mechanism in response to oxidative stress. In addition, their gene expression in lung or in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage might be a valuable biomarker of chronic inflammation and pulmonary disease after inhalation of oxidants.”

Another interesting study is called, “Radiographic abnormalities in asbestos insulators: Effects of duration from onset of exposure and smoking. Relationships of dyspnea with parenchymal and pleural fibrosis” by R. Lilis MD, A. Miller MD, J. Godbold PhD, E. Chan MS, I. J. Selikoff MD – American Journal of Industrial Medicine volume 20, issue 1, pages 1-15- 1991 – here is an excerpt: “Abstract – Chest radiographs and spirometry were evaluated in 2,907 active and retired asbestos insulators; most (86.8%) had ≥ 30 years from onset of asbestos exposure. Testing was performed in 19 cities in the United States during 1981–1983. Complete demographic, smoking, clinical, and radiologic data were obtained for 2,790 workers. This is the largest single group of insulators that has been studied. Five hundred forty-eight (19.7%) had never smoked cigarettes, 942 (33.9%) were current cigarette smokers, and 1,300 (46.6%) were ex-smokers. Only 439 (15.7%) workers had no radiographic evidence of asbestos-related disease (normal chest X-ray); 668 (23.9%) had pleural fibrosis only, 325 (11.6%) had parenchymal fibrosis alone, and 1,358 (48.7%) had both parenchymal and pleural fibrosis. The prevalence of radiographic parenchymal changes increased significantly (p < .001) from 38.6% (DURONSET < 30 years) to 70% (≥40 years). For pleural changes the comparative prevalences were 55% and 82%. Those with no history of cigarette smoking were more likely to have normal filMS than those with a history of smoking (19.2% versus 14.4% for current smokers and 15.2% among ex-smokers), and were less likely to have parenchymal fibrosis (44.5% versus 69.7% for current smokers and 60.2% of ex-smokers). Dyspnea, MRC grade 3 and higher, was more prevalent when pleural fibrosis was associated with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (at all profusion levels of small opacities) than when pleural fibrosis was absent. Logistic regression analysis of factors contributing to such dyspnea showed that the presence of combined parenchymal and pleural abnormalities was a significant explanatory variable, in addition to age, smoking, and body mass (Quetelet index); the presence of parenchymal changes only or of pleural changes only, as factors contributing to dyspnea, did not reach the level of statistical significance in the regression analysis. The results of these examinations show that pleural fibrosis is a frequent finding in asbestos-exposed groups with long-term follow-up and that its functional significance is not negligible. The contribution of cigarette smoking to prevalence and severity of interstitial fibrosis is an additional reason for smoking cessation among asbestos-exposed individuals.”

A third study is called, “Asbestos: a chronology of its origins and health effects.” By R Murray – Br J Ind Med 1990;47:361-365.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – The emotionalised subject of asbestos is treated in chronological terms: how the “magic mineral” known in ancient times in Europe and Asia became in the late nineteenth century an important industrial resource of particular interest to the navies of the world; and how its malign effects gradually became apparent during the present century. The media have made asbestos a notorious villain, but it still has properties and applications useful to society if they are properly controlled in the same way as other industrial hazards. One important application is the manufacture of asbestos cement pipes which are a convenient and cheap method of providing water supplies and sewage disposal for developing countries. An appeal is made for prudence and not hysteria in relation to the use of mineral fibres of all types.”

We all owe a debt of gratitude to these fine researchers for their important work.  If you found any of these excerpts helpful, please read the studies in their entirety.

Monty Wrobleski is the author of this article, for more information please click on the following links

Depuy Hip Recall

Depuy Hip Lawsuit

Mesothelioma Lawyer

 


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