Archive for the ‘Mesothelioma Staging’ Category

Mesothelioma Staging – Stage 4

Stage IV mesothelioma is the furthest progression of the disease. Though surgery is generally rare at this stage, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are predominantly used to give palliative care and stop the growth of the cancer.
Video Rating: 0 / 5

Mesothelioma staging is a process that determines what treatment options are available to patients, typically on a four-tiered scale. The Butchart system, first used in the 1970s, is the oldest of any established systems.

Childhood Asthma Still Increasing

Childhood Asthma Still Increasing

Asthma is a chronic disease means it Last for a long period that affects the bronchial tubes, which take air in and out of the lungs. In asthma, these airways become easily affected and as a result react more robustly to allergens or irritants that are there in the environment. Upon exposure to these triggers, the airways turn out to be narrower and less air flows from end to end to the lung tissues. This causes typical asthma symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and difficulty breathing.

In the United States in 1993 and 1994, at least an average of 13.7 million people reported that they affected by asthma-related conditions. Today that number has enhanced to about 15 million, nearly 5 million in that most are children. Asthma is now the third leading cause of hospitalization among children under 15 years old, and accounts for more than 14 million lost school days each year. The impact of poor health and deaths due to asthma is disproportionately higher among less income people, minorities, and children who live in inner cities than in the general population.

“Its turn into a common problem,” says Joseph Letzelter, who practices at Children’s Hospital, Says that researchers cannot yet point to one exact reason for the increase, but says there are most likely a lot of factors involved: “The rise could be attributed due to an increase in environmental factors, or it could be that people are just more in step to asthma than they used to be.”

Causes

Joseph Letzelter says that asthma is most generally part of an allergic reaction to seasonal factors similar to ragweed, tree pollen, or grass pollen; or to environmental factors such dust, as cigarette smoke, cockroaches, or animal dander.

But, he says, asthma is not at all times allergic in nature. “A viral infection can fetch on asthma, as can definite smells, like a particular perfume,” says Joseph Letzelter. Exercise-induced asthma is quite common, and is usually triggered by strenuous activity. Genetic predisposition as well plays a part in childhood asthma: “If father or mother have asthma, children are much more probable to have it as well,” he explains. Children who are often ill with breathing problems at an early age are also reason to develop asthma, as are those born or ahead of time or those who have been on ventilators for prolonged periods.

Joseph Letzelter is an expert author, who is presently working on the site Joseph Letzelter. He has written many articles in various topics Joseph Letzelter. For more information about . Visit our site Joseph Letzelter Contact him at josephletzelterarticle@gmail.com.


Article from articlesbase.com

Joseph Letzelter?s Systemic Lupus Erythematosus General Features

Joseph Letzelter?s Systemic Lupus Erythematosus General Features

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic and dangerous disease with many symptoms. SLE is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s own immune structure is directed against the body’s own tissues. The origin of SLE is not known. This disease is common to all ages, but is more common in young women. The fabrication of autoantibodies direct to immune complex formation. The immune complex deposition in many tissues direct to the manifestations of the disease. Immune complexes can be deposited in glomeruli, lungs, skin, mesothelium, synovium, and other places. Many SLE affected patients develop renal complications.

Generally normal healthy immune systems develop an antibodies that will help to fight and kill the bacteria as well as viruses that affect the body. In systemic lupus erythematosus, the body’s immune system malfunctions by attacking by itself. Rather than shielding the body from destructive foreign substances, the immune system produces autoantibodies plus sensitized cytotoxic T cells that injure the host’s own tissues. The immune system mistakes host tissues for foreign ones plus increase an inappropriate attack. These autoantibodies contribute to a multitude of destructive effects in the body.

Relative toward the immune system, the initial obvious abnormality of SLE is the hyperactivity of B lymphocytes. Nor intrinsic B lymphocyte abnormalities (a subject of current research) or else defects in assistant T lymphocytes (CD4 cells-that regulate B lymphocyte function) are probable contributors to the extreme activation of B lymphocytes. The hyperactivity of B lymphocytes consequences in the production of abnormal antibodies, the hallmark symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus. In SLE, abnormal B lymphocytes instinctively secrete improved amounts of abnormal antibodies that contribute negatively to a lacking immune system. The production of irregular autoantibodies could also react through a whole host of subcellular antigens. Autoantibodies cause harm by altering the job of target organs as well as tissues. They might also contribute to multi-systemic swelling.

Joseph Letzelter is an expert author, who is presently working on the site Joseph Letzelter. He has written many articles in various topics Joseph Letzelter. For more information about . Visit our site Joseph Letzelter Contact him at josephletzelterarticle@gmail.com.


Article from articlesbase.com

Malignant Mesothelioma

Malignant Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a type of cancer most commonly caused by asbestos exposure. The cancer forms in the mesothelium, which is a protective lining that covers such vital internal organs as the lungs, stomach, and heart. Mesothelioma is more precisely called malignant mesothelioma.

Malignant mesothelioma is typically causd by the inhalation or ingestion of asbestos fibers. The fibers become lodged in the mesothelium as they are small enough to get in but cannot escape. Over a period of 15-50 years, the asbestos fibers scar and inflame the tissue, causing cellular damage. This can eventually lead to the development of mesothelioma.

When a person has mesothelioma, a rapid division of cancer cells causes the affected membrane to thicken. This results in fluid buildup in the spaces between the membrane layers in the mesothelium. Tumors form as the cancerous cells continue to divide and grow.

Mesothelioma can be induced by industrial exposure to asbestos particles or other types of exposure to asbestos fibers and dust. It is an aggressive type of cancer that can spread to other organs and tissues in the body. There is no known cure of malignant mesothelioma. Typically patients live between twelve to eighteen months after diagnosis.

Detecting mesothelioma at the earliest stages gives the patient the best chance for treating the disease. Symptoms of the cancer may include chest wall pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. This is caused by the build up fluid between the lung and chest wall from the peritoneal mesothelium, which lines the lungs. Persons who have been exposed to asbestos and have these symptoms seek a doctor immediately.

Fortunately, malignant mesothelioma is rare. Learn more about this cancer and the stages of mesothelioma at http://www.stagesofmesothelioma.org.


Article from articlesbase.com

Pleural Mesotheloma- Facts you should know

Pleural Mesotheloma- Facts you should know

Mesothelioma is the commonest primary tumor of the pleura.There are two main types;

1]the localized mesothelioma{benign and malignant types} 2]the diffuse malignant mesothelioma

Causes

There is a strong correlation between asbestos exposure and the development of mesothelioma,although a history of exposure is not always obtainable in patients who have mesothelioma.There are 2 types of asbestos fibres based on crystalline structure;a-serpentine{chrysolite}and b-amphibole.

Included within the amphibole are amosite,tremolte,crocidolite and anthophyllite.The most harmful is the crocidolite or better known as blue asbestos.

Localised Bening Mesothelioma

These characteristically arise from the inner layer of the pleura

Symptoms and signs;

-chest pain -shortness of breath -most of the times there are no symptoms{asymptomatic},these tumors are usually discovered on routine chest x-ray -hypoglycemia {low blood sugar}is sometimes associated Treatment

Surgery is the main stay of treatment,the tumor is removed by the surgeon and reccurence is rare and when it happens transition to malignant form of tumor should be suspected.

Localised Malignant Mesothelioma

Symptoms and Signs;

-chest pain -cough -fever -shortness of breath

Treatment

Surgery is also the treatment of choice,although prognosis is very poor

Diffuse Malignant Mesothelioma

This type of mesothelioma can arise form any part of the pleura and often extend into the peritoneum as well as into the ribs and chest wall{peritoneal mesothelioma and pericardial mesothelioma}.It also spreads commonly to the liver, brain and adrenal glands.Histologically malignant mesothelioma have both fibrous{sarcomatous mesothelioma}and epithelial{papillary}components.

Investigations

-CT scan of the chest is extremely useful in diagnosing the extent of the tumor. -Needle biopsy{the surgeon inserts a special needle into the pleura to take samples of the tumor which is taken to the laboratory to see under the microscope}of the pleura is a must.
-Pleural fluid is aspirated and taken to the lab for microscopic examination.

Staging of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

-Stage 1:Involvement of ipsilateral pleura and lungs{affecting just one lung either left or right lung}
-Stage 2-Involvement of chest wall,mediastinum{structure at the middle of the heart},pericardium or contralateral{opposite side}pleura
-Stage 3-Distant blood spread into other organs eg brain,adrenals

Treatment

Treatment is discouragingly ineffective and survival rarely longer than 2 years with an average of 10-14 months.In selected cases with stage 1 a radical sugery-pleuropneumonectomy{removal of lung and pleura} may be effective,but long term survival is rare.Primary radiation therapy may be used also. Combination chemotherapy using either single agent or combination protocols have also been used but the outcome remains dismal.

Bello kamorudeen is an health worker and author of several mesothelioma articles.For more information on types of mesothelioma go to http://www.mesotheliomacorner.blogspot.com


Article from articlesbase.com

Find More Mesothelioma Staging Articles

Pleural Mesothelioma Facts

Pleural Mesothelioma Facts

Mesothelioma is the commonest primary tumor of the pleura. There are two main types;
1] the localized mesothelioma{bening and malignant types}
2] the diffuse malignant mesothelioma

Causes
There is a strong correlation between asbestos exposure and the development of mesothelioma, although a history of exposure is not always obtainable in patients who have mesothelioma. There are 2 types of asbestos fibers based on crystalline structure; a-serpentine {chrysolite} and b-amphibole. Included within the amphibole are amosite, tremolte, crocidolite and anthophyllite. The most harmful is the crocidolite or better known as blue asbestos.

Localised Bening Mesothelioma

These characteristically arise from the inner layer of the pleura
Symptoms and signs;
-chest pain
-shortness of breath
-most of the times there are no symptoms {asymptomatic}, these tumors are usually discovered on routine chest x-ray
-hypoglycemia {low blood sugar} is sometimes associated

Treatment
Surgery is the main stay of treatment, the tumor is removed by the surgeon and recurrence is rare and when it happens transition to malignant form of tumor should be suspected.

Localized Malignant Mesothelioma
Symptoms and Signs;
-chest pain
-cough
-fever
-shortness of breath
Treatment
Surgery is also the treatment of choice, although prognosis is very poor

Diffuse Malignant Mesothelioma
This type of mesothelioma can arise form any part of the pleura and often extend into the peritoneum as well as into the ribs and chest wall {peritoneal mesothelioma and pericardial mesothelioma}. It also spreads commonly to the liver, brain and adrenal glands. Histologically malignant mesothelioma have both fibrous {sarcomatous mesothelioma} and epithelial {papillary} components.

Investigations
-CT scan of the chest is extremely useful in diagnosing the extent of the tumor.
-Needle biopsy {the surgeon inserts a special needle into the pleura to take samples of the tumor which is taken to the laboratory to see under the microscope} of the pleura is a must.
-Pleural fluid is aspirated and taken to the lab for microscopic examination.
Staging of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma
-Stage 1:Involvement of ipsilateral pleura and lungs {affecting just one lung either left or right lung}
-Stage 2-Involvement of chest wall, mediastinum {structure at the middle of the heart}, pericardium or contralateral {opposite side} pleura
-Stage 3-Distant blood spread into other organs eg brain, adrenals

Treatment
Treatment is discouragingly ineffective and survival rarely longer than 2 years with an average of 10-14 months. In selected cases with stage 1 a radical surgery-pleuropneumonectomy may be effective, but long term survival is rare. Primary radiation therapy may be used also. Combination chemotherapy using either single agent or combination protocols have also been used but the outcome remains dismal.

Bello kamorudeen.To learn more on Pleural Mesothelioma go to http://www.mesotheliomacorner.blogspot.com


Article from articlesbase.com

Categories