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Mesothelioma, A Rare Lung Cancer

Mesothelioma, A Rare Lung Cancer

Mesothelioma is a cancer of the mesothelium-the sac lining the internal body cavities. The lining around the lungs is called the pleural and in the abdomen it is known as the peritoneum.Although sometimes referred to as “asbestos lung cancer”, mesothelioma is not the same as lung cancer. Lung cancers occur inside the lung itself; mesothelioma occurs in the lining of the lung. Mesothelioma is rare, striking fewer than 3000 Americans per year.About 2000 people in the UK are diagnosed with mesothelioma each year.

There are three recognized types of mesothelioma.

1.Pleural mesothelioma

2.Peritonial mesothelioma

3.Pericardial mesothelioma

Pleural mesothelioma is the most common form of the disease, accounting for roughly 70% of cases, and occurs in the lining of the lung known as the pleura. Peritoneal mesothelioma occurs in the lining of the abdominal cavity, known as the peritoneum and pericardial mesothelioma originates in the pericardium, which lines the heart.

Asbestos is the most common cause of mesothelioma. Up to nine out of ten cases of mesothelioma are caused by exposure to asbestos. Asbestos is a natural mineral, mined from rock found in many countries. It is made up of tiny fibres that are as strong as steel but can be woven like cotton and are highly resistant to heat and chemicals.
During the 1960s the first definite link between mesothelioma and asbestos was made. In the past asbestos was imported to the UK in large quantities. It was used in construction, ship-building and in household appliances. Asbestos was very widely used in insulation materials, such as amosite insulation board, and building materials, including asbestos cement.
When asbestos is disturbed or damaged, it releases tiny fibres that can be breathed into the lungs. Asbestos fibres are very fine and, when breathed in, they can make their way into the smallest airways of the lung, so they cannot be breathed or coughed out. Once the fibres are in the lungs, the body’s defense mechanism tries to break them down and remove them, which leads to inflammation in the lung tissue.
The asbestos fibres can also penetrate through the lung tissue to settle in the pleura (the membrane around the lung). Over many years they can cause mesothelioma or other lung diseases to develop.

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Related Asbestos Lungs Articles

Evaluating Benign and Malignant Lung and Pleural Masses in Asbestosis and Mesothelioma

Evaluating Benign and Malignant Lung and Pleural Masses in Asbestosis and Mesothelioma

Exposure to asbestos in the workplace is the most common cause of Mesothelioma disease.  Continued research is necessary if we are ever to find a cure.  One interesting study is called, “Exposure to Asbestos and Human Disease.” By Becklake, MR – New England Journal of Medicine Vol. 306, no. 24, pp. 1480-1482. 1982.  Here is an excerpt: “During the past two decades, ill health resulting from exposure to asbestos has been the subject of extensive observation and research — probably more intensive than research on any other environmental agent. In the most direct target organ, the lung, in its pleural coverings, there is a wide spectrum of response after exposure; not only acute and chronic inflammatory diseases but also cancer of these organs may occur. Research has been stimulated by the belief that the more complete our understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the better will be the ability to control the continued use of this mineral in today’s complex technologic world.”

Another interesting study is called, “Analysis of amphibole asbestos in chrysotile and other minerals.” By Addison, J, Davies, LST – Annals of Occupational Hygiene [ANN. OCCUP. HYG.]. Vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 159-175. 1990.  Here is an excerpt: “Chrysotile asbestos and many other mineral raw materials contain amphibole minerals which may be asbestiform. There is currently no analytical method which will detect the presence of amphibole at sufficiently low limits to preclude the possibility of inadvertent exposure of persons handling these materials to hazardous airborne fibre concentrations. A method of chemical digestion of chrysotiles has been tested with regard to the determination of their tremolite contaminant content and this has been applied to a range of chrysotile and other minerals. The method improves the sensitivity of the amphibole analysis at least 10-fold giving detection limits of 0.01-0.05% in chrysotile by X-ray diffractometry.”

Another interesting study is called, “Computed tomography in the diagnosis of asbestos-related thoracic disease” by Gamsu, Gordon MD; Aberle, Denise R. MD; Lynch, David MD, BCh – Journal of Thoracic Imaging – January 1989 – Volume 4 – Issue 1.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has improved the radiologist’s ability to detect and potentially quantify the abnormalities of asbestos exposure. It has proved to be more sensitive than chest radiography for detecting pleural plaques and for discriminating between pleural fibrosis and extrapleural fat. HRCT is also more sensitive than chest radiography or conventional CT for detecting parenchymal abnormalities in asbestos-exposed persons. The HRCT findings that correlate with other parameters of asbestosis include (1) septal and centrilobular thickening, (2) parenchymal fibrous bands, (3) honeycomb patterns, (4) subpleural density persisting in the prone position, and (5) subpleural curvilinear lines that persist in the prone position. CT has an important role in evaluating benign and malignant lung and pleural masses in asbestosis.”

Another study is called, “Effect of Long-Term Removal of Iron from Asbestos by Desferrioxamine B on Subsequent Mobilization by Other Chelators and Induction of DNA Single-Strand Breaks” by Chao C. C. and Aust A. E. – Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics – Volume 308, Issue 1, January 1994, Pages 64-69.  Here is an excerpt: “
Abstract – The long-term removal of iron from crocidolite or amosite by desferrioxamine B (DF) at pH 7.5 or 5.0 was studied. Crocidolite or amosite (1 mg/ml) was suspended in 50 mM NaCl at pH 7.5 or 5.0 with the addition of 1 mM DF for up to 90 days. Although the rate of iron mobilization decreased with time, iron was continuously mobilized from both forms of asbestos at pH 5.0 or 7.5. The amount of iron mobilized from crocidolite was at least twice that mobilized from amosite at either pH. Iron was mobilized more rapidly from crocidolite at pH 5.0 than at 7.5 for the first 15 days, but at later times the amount being mobilized at pH 7.5 became equal to or slightly greater than that at 5.0. For amosite, the mobilization at pH 5.0 was always greater than that at pH 7.5. Next, the effect of iron removal from asbestos by DF on subsequent iron mobilization by a second chelator (EDTA or citrate) and on induction of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) was studied. Asbestos, treated for up to 15 days with DF at pH 7.5, was washed to remove ferrioxamine and excess DF, then incubated with EDTA or citrate (1 mM). The rates of iron mobilization from both forms of asbestos by a second chelator decreased as more and more iron was removed by DF. Induction of DNA SSBs also decreased, reflecting the unavailability of iron to catalyze the damage. The results suggest three things. First, if long-term mobilization of iron from asbestos occurs in vivo as has been observed in vitro, it may play a role in the long-term biological effects of asbestos. Second, more rapid mobilization of iron from asbestos fibers may occur when the fibers are phagocytized by cells and maintained in phagosomes where the pH is 4.0-5.0. Third, treatment of asbestos by iron chelators, such as DF, prior to exposure to cultured cells or whole animals, may reduce the biological effects of asbestos resulting from iron, but may not completely eliminate them.”

We all owe a debt of gratitude to these fine researchers for their hard work and dedication.  If you found any of these excerpts interesting, please read the studies in their entirety.

 

Monty Wrobleski is the author of this article, for more information please visit the following links

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Asbestos Exposure, Malignant Lung Cancer – California Lawyer

kazanvideo.com Asbestos exposure can cause malignant Lung Cancer and other diseases in the California area. These diseases cause victims and their families pain, suffering, and medical expenses. If you or a loved one has been exposed to Asbestos, or is at risk for malignant lung cancer or Mesothelioma, we can help. Find the information you need at our website, or call today 877.622.5246 for a no cost evaluation.
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Lung Cancer Survival Stories

Lung Cancer Survival Stories

Many medical professionals believe that mesothelioma cancer can only be contracted through the inhalation of asbestos into the lungs; practically all cases of mesothelioma cancer have been connected with workers whose jobs have exposed them to abnormally high levels of asbestos.

Lung Cancer Survival Stories

Mesothelioma is a very rare form of cancer that has approximately 4000 reported cases each year in the United States. Mesothelioma cancer can be broken down into three subcategories: Peritoneal mesothelioma, Pleural mesothelioma, and Pericardeal mesothelioma. Of the three, Pleural mesothelioma cancer is responsible for 75% of all mesothelioma cases.

The types of cancer are named after where each is located in the body. For example, Pleural mesothelioma is found in the cavities inside the chest which surround the lungs. These areas are called the pleural cavities; the pleura is the thin membrane sac which contains the lungs.

Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the peritoneum, a thin cell membrane which surrounds the gastrointestinal tract. The peritoneum helps lubricate the stomach and intestines, helping the body properly digest food. Peritoneal mesothelioma composes approximately 15-20% of all diagnosed cases of mesothelioma cancer in the United States.

Pericardial mesothelioma is the rarest of all diagnosed cases. The pericardium is the protective sac around the heart. The main function of the pericardium is to lubricate the heart, allowing the muscle to work at a more efficient level. This type of mesothelioma only composes 5% of all diagnosed cases.

As with all cancers, mesothelioma in it’s various forms is simply the uncontrolled growth of cells. Typically, cells in the body grow and then die, however cancer cells grow unabated and are typically damaged by radiation or some chemical change. Mesothelioma cancer is caused by asbestos fiber entering the body through inhalation; once inside the body the asbestos fibers cut the protective sacs surrounding the organs. Mesothelium are small cells which help lubricate the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium. These small cells become cancerous and rapidly expand, preventing the vital functions of the affected organs.

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Mesothelioma can take decades to develop after an initial exposure to asbestos occurs. This prevents many people from recognizing the warning signs that they might be developing the disease. Each of the forms mentioned above has a different sets of symptoms, many of which match less serious diseases. The prognosis for mesothelioma found early is longer than cases caught later in their development, however the mortality rate for mesothelioma is notoriously high. Medical breakthroughs are attempting to increase the life expectancy and quality of life for sufferers of mesothelioma, however there is currently no cure.

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People who worked in an environment with heavy amounts of asbestos or who were exposed to asbestos fibers at any point are at risk for developing mesothelioma. The various types of mesothelioma cancer have different symptoms, so if you or a loved one has been exposed to asbestos please find more information about your symptoms.

More Asbestos And Cancer Articles

Mesothelioma Attorneys Asbestos Lung Cancer Lawyers

www.gorijulianlaw.com 888-362-6890 Gori Julian & Associates, PC handles asbestos lung cancer and mesothelioma cases. Contact the firm in Edwardsville, Illinois or St. Peters, Missouri for representation.
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Asbestos Cell Injury Inflammation and Fibrotic Lung Disease

Asbestos Cell Injury Inflammation and Fibrotic Lung Disease

One interesting study is called, “Approaches to prevention of asbestos-induced lung disease using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated catalase” – Journal of Free Radicals in Biology & Medicine – Volume 2, Issues 5-6, 1986, Pages 335-338 by Brooke T. Mossman, Joanne P. Marsh, David Hardwick, Rhonda Gilbert, Scot Hill, Ann Sesko, Marie Shatos, Jacqueline Doherty, Ann Weller and Michael Bergeron.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – Asbestos-associated damage to cells of the respiratory tract in vitro can be prevented by the simultaneous addition of scavengers of active oxygen species to cultures. To determine if administration of scavenger enzymes to animals and humans is a plausible approach to the prevention of asbestos-induced lung disease, osmotic pumps were filled with various concentrations of PEG-coupled catalase and implanted subcutaneously into Fischer 344 rats over a 28-day period. At 3, 14, and 28 days after implantation of the pumps, the animals were evaluated for levels of catalase in serum and lung. In addition, lung tissue and lavage fluids were examined at 28 days for biochemical and morphologic indications of cell injury, inflammation, and fibrotic lung disease. At all time points examined, the administration of PEG-catalase caused a dosage-dependent increase in serum levels of catalase. The levels of lung catalase were evaluated at 28 days but not at earlier time periods. In comparison to control rats, the amounts of enzymes (lactic dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase), protein, and cells in lavage fluids from treated animals were unaltered. Moreover, the lungs showed no evidence of inflammation or fibrotic disease as determined by differential cell counts in lavage and measurement of hydroxyproline. These studies suggest that administration of PEG-catalase does not cause injury or other alterations in lung tissue and can be pursued as a feasible approach to prevention of asbestosis.”

Another study is called, “Prevalence of pleural calcification in persons exposed to asbestos dust, and in the general population in the same district” – Environmental Research – Volume 5, Issue 2, June 1972, Pages 210-216 by M. Navrátilb, a and F. Trippéb, a – Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – It is of interest whether pleural calcification is primarily the result of long years of exposure to asbestos dust or whether there are factors other than exposure to dust. We have investigated persons working for a long period in a plant processing asbestos products (chrysotile), persons without occupational exposure to dust but living in the vicinity of the plant, and consanguineous relations of patients with pleural calcifications. We have also studied a large population above the age of 40, in the district in which the plant is situated. Comparison of the groups disclosed that prevalence of pleural calcifications was closely related to opportunity for exposure to asbestos dust either occupationally or by family or neighborhood contact, as contrasted with the unexposed population. The prevalence in the group with direct or indirect asbestos exposure was 5.3, 5.8, 3.5%; whereas in the unexposed population it was 0.34%. These results indicate that asbestos is primarily responsible for pleural findings, but that some pleural disease may be the result of the other factors, still not known. The identification of other causes is hampered by the long period which need elapse from the onset of the process to the radiological appearance of the pleural change.”

Another study is called, “Malignant pleural mesothelioma caused by environmental exposure to asbestos or erionite in rural Turkey: CT findings in 84 patients” by AA Sahin, L Coplu, ZT Selcuk, M Eryilmaz, S Emri, O Akhan and YI Baris Department of Chest Diseases, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. – American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol 161, 533-537.  Here is an excerpt: “OBJECTIVE Malignant pleural mesothelioma in rural Turkey frequently results from environmental exposure to tremolite asbestos or fibrous zeolite (erionite). The aim of this study was to determine the CT features of malignant pleural mesothelioma in patients exposed to asbestos or erionite. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The CT scans of 84 patients with proved malignant pleural mesothelioma were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty patients (24%) had been exposed to erionite and 64 patients (76%) had been exposed to asbestos. The CT scans were interpreted by seven observers who did not know the clinical or pathologic findings. RESULTS. CT scans showed either unilateral pleural thickening or pleural nodules/masses in all patients. Pleural nodules were present in 25 patients (30%) and pleural masses in 44 patients (52%). Pleural effusion was found in 61 patients (73%), mediastinal pleural involvement in 78 (93%), pleural calcifications in 52 (62%), involvement of the interlobar fissures in 64 (76%), and volume contraction in 61 (73%). Reduced size of the hemithorax was significantly correlated with chest wall involvement. On the basis of CT findings, the preassigned staging was changed in 21 patients (25%), including 44% of the patients with disease that had been classified as stage I. CT findings were not significantly different between the patients exposed to erionite and those exposed to asbestos. CONCLUSION. The most common CT findings in cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma were unilateral pleural thickening or pleural nodules/masses with or without effusion. CT provided valuable information on the extent of the disease, which was important for staging. Although the CT features are not pathognomonic, they provide valuable clues to the diagnosis in patients who have been exposed to mineral fibers.”
 
If you found any of these excerpts interesting, please read the studies in their entirety.  We all owe a debt of gratitude to these fine researchers.

Monty Wrobleski is the author of this article, for more information please visit the following links:

Mesothelioma Lawyer

Mesothelioma Lawyer

Mesothelioma Lawyer

 


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