Posts Tagged ‘mesothelioma’

Mesothelioma, A Rare Lung Cancer

Mesothelioma, A Rare Lung Cancer

Mesothelioma is a cancer of the mesothelium-the sac lining the internal body cavities. The lining around the lungs is called the pleural and in the abdomen it is known as the peritoneum.Although sometimes referred to as “asbestos lung cancer”, mesothelioma is not the same as lung cancer. Lung cancers occur inside the lung itself; mesothelioma occurs in the lining of the lung. Mesothelioma is rare, striking fewer than 3000 Americans per year.About 2000 people in the UK are diagnosed with mesothelioma each year.

There are three recognized types of mesothelioma.

1.Pleural mesothelioma

2.Peritonial mesothelioma

3.Pericardial mesothelioma

Pleural mesothelioma is the most common form of the disease, accounting for roughly 70% of cases, and occurs in the lining of the lung known as the pleura. Peritoneal mesothelioma occurs in the lining of the abdominal cavity, known as the peritoneum and pericardial mesothelioma originates in the pericardium, which lines the heart.

Asbestos is the most common cause of mesothelioma. Up to nine out of ten cases of mesothelioma are caused by exposure to asbestos. Asbestos is a natural mineral, mined from rock found in many countries. It is made up of tiny fibres that are as strong as steel but can be woven like cotton and are highly resistant to heat and chemicals.
During the 1960s the first definite link between mesothelioma and asbestos was made. In the past asbestos was imported to the UK in large quantities. It was used in construction, ship-building and in household appliances. Asbestos was very widely used in insulation materials, such as amosite insulation board, and building materials, including asbestos cement.
When asbestos is disturbed or damaged, it releases tiny fibres that can be breathed into the lungs. Asbestos fibres are very fine and, when breathed in, they can make their way into the smallest airways of the lung, so they cannot be breathed or coughed out. Once the fibres are in the lungs, the body’s defense mechanism tries to break them down and remove them, which leads to inflammation in the lung tissue.
The asbestos fibres can also penetrate through the lung tissue to settle in the pleura (the membrane around the lung). Over many years they can cause mesothelioma or other lung diseases to develop.

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Exposure To Asbestos Results In Mesothelioma Cancer

Exposure To Asbestos Results In Mesothelioma Cancer

Mesothelioma cancer is generally found among those people who have been exposed to asbestos. Asbestos is a naturally-occurring material found in the altered industries. These are useful in certain respects but are also harmful to a great extent. In course of mining and manufacturing fibers may be dislodged from the mineral which get attached to the clothes or hair. Over time, the workers inhale the asbestos and this in turn may lead to the development of cancer.

The amount of asbestos inhalation determines the spread of cancer. This disease is also known as asbestos lung cancer. At times, an exposure of only one or two months can result in Mesothelioma. The fibers reach the lungs and progress rapidly. Slowly they move to the lower portion of the lungs and infect the system. However, the cancer can occur after 30-40 years after the exposure to asbestos because it is in this time when the asbestos spreads and reacts in the body. In some cases, it might also occur after 70 years.

The disease occurs generally to persons who are more than 40 years old. However, through out the year only few cases of Mesothelioma are recorded. Still it is better for the persons who are exposed to asbestos to take proper precautions in order to prevent the occurrence of this disease.

A patient is first diagnosed to detect the Mesothelioma cancer. With the help of a biopsy examination, an abnormal tissue is placed under the microscope to detect the disease.

The disease spreads in the body step by step. As early it is detected, the spread of the disease can be prevented. Mesothelioma is generally present in the right or the left side of the pleura and at times also involves the diaphragm with it. This is actually the stage 1 of the disease. In stage 2, the disease invades the chest wall. At times, it can also involve the esophagus, heart or even the pleura on both the sides. In stage 3, the Mesothelioma cancer penetrates through the diaphragm and reaches the abdominal cavity. In the last stage it spreads into the blood streams and the other organs.  

One should know that Mesothelioma occurs more in men than in women. Majority of the types of Mesothelioma cancer is considered to be fatal. The rates of survival in this type of cancer are very rare. However, if early treatment is done, the patient can be made to survive for some more time.

In order to know the measures in order to prevent from asbestos and the consequent Mesothelioma cancer, one should log on to In this site, they would know how they can prevent themselves from asbestos and know that they have the symptoms of Mesothelioma. In this site they would get a ray of hope and they can solve all their doubts related to the disease.

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Exposure to Pulmonary Carcinogens and Mesothelioma

Exposure to Pulmonary Carcinogens and Mesothelioma

When pieces of asbestos are inhaled or swallowed, they can lead to life threatening diseases.  To date, over 730,000 people have filed claims for asbestos related injuries in the United States alone. One interesting study that examples the link between exposure and Mesothelioma disease is called, “Analysis of asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies in tissue samples from human lung. An international interlaboratory trial.” by Gylseth B, Churg A, Davis J.M., Johnson N, Morgan A, Mowe G, Rogers A, Roggli V. – Scand J Work Environ Health. 1985 Apr;11(2):107-10.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – In order to compare methods of counting asbestos fibers in lung tissue, seven laboratories participated in an interlaboratory trial in which tissue samples from five human lungs were analyzed. In some laboratories, fiber concentrations were assessed with the light microscope and, in others, with either scanning or transmission electron microscopes. Within each laboratory the ranking of the results was similar, but there were marked differences in the absolute values obtained by the different laboratories. It is concluded that the laboratories participating in this trial appear to produce internally consistent results, but there is difficulty in directly comparing results from one laboratory to the next.”

A second study is called, “Reduced Fhit protein expression and loss of heterozygosity at FHIT gene in tumours from smoking and asbestos-exposed lung cancer patients.” By Pylkkanen L, Wolff H, Stjernvall T, Tuominen P, Sioris T, Karjalainen A, Anttila S, Husgafvel-Pursiainen K.  Int J Oncol. 2002 Feb;20(2):285-90.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – The FHIT gene, at 3p14.2, has been suggested to form a molecular target to damage induced by human lung carcinogens. We examined aberrant expression of the Fhit protein and allele loss at the FHIT gene in a series of lung cancer cases, mainly of non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) histology. We had detailed data on tobacco smoke exposure and occupational asbestos exposure available for the cases. The principal aim of the present study was to investigate whether absent or reduced Fhit expression or FHIT allele loss was associated with exposure to these pulmonary carcinogens. We detected reduced Fhit expression in 62% (33/53) of the cases analysed. Prevalence of allele loss at the FHIT locus was 22% (20/89). Reduced protein expression was common both in the asbestos-exposed (67%) and non-exposed cases (59%); [odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-4.9]. LOH frequencies differed somewhat between the two groups and were 25% vs. 16%, respectively (OR 1.8; 95% CI 0.5-5.9). Absent or reduced expression was common in smokers, with no significant difference found between current smokers and non-smokers (mainly former smokers) (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.5-4.5). NSCLCs with squamous cell histology exhibited both aberrant [removed]OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.9-10.3) and allele loss (OR 3.3, 95% CI 0.9-12.7) more frequently than adenocarcinoma. Finally, we found that FHIT allele loss was increased in stage II or more advanced disease (OR 2.5, 95% CI 0.9-7.4), and in poorly differentiated tumours (grade 3, OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.8-8.1). In conclusion, our present data support significance of FHIT inactivation in development of lung cancer.”

A third study is called, “Effects of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos on cellular uptake and metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in hamster tracheal epithelial cells.” Environ Health Perspect. 1983 September; 51: 331 by B. T. Mossman, A. Eastman, J. M. Landesman, and E. Bresnick.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma is increased substantially in asbestos workers who smoke. We used several approaches to determine possible mechanisms of synergism at the cellular level between asbestos and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a chemical carcinogen in cigarette smoke. Specifically, we hypothesized that cellular uptake and metabolism of BaP might be facilitated when the hydrocarbon was coated on asbestos. In addition, we were interested in whether asbestos, alone or in combination with BaP, caused single strand breakage of DNA in epithelial cells of the airway. UICC reference samples of crocidolite and chrysotile were coated with 3H-BaP before their addition to monolayers of hamster tracheal epithelial cells. In comparative studies, 3H-BaP at identical amounts was added to cells in culture medium. At intervals thereafter, uptake of BaP by cells was documented by scintillation spectrometry and by autoradiography. In addition, cells and media were assayed by use of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to demonstrate the water-soluble metabolites of BaP. The integrity of DNA was monitored by alkaline elution at intervals after exposure of tracheal cells to various concentrations of asbestos, BaP and BaP-coated asbestos. A rapid transfer of BaP to cells occurred after addition of BaP-coated asbestos to cultures. When BaP was adsorbed to both types of fibers before their addition to cultures, 70% of the total BaP introduced entered the cell within 1 hr; 50% remained intracellular after 8 hr.”

If you found any of these studies interesting, please read them in their entirety.  We all owe a great deal of thanks to the people who are researching these important issues.

Monty Wrobleski is the author of this article, for more information please visit the following links Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis,

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Access to Justice – Mesothelioma (3)

Founder and Chairman Jim Sokolove outlines why veterans are at increased risk for asbestos-related diseases like mesothelioma.
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Mesothelioma settlements – Asbestos Related cases – video Pursue your mesothelioma settlement today. Kazan Law will help you understand your rights as a victim of asbestos. Kazan has a long and successful history in asbestos and mesothelioma settlements. Call 877.622.5246 for a no cost evaluation about asbestos-related disease.
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Evaluating Benign and Malignant Lung and Pleural Masses in Asbestosis and Mesothelioma

Evaluating Benign and Malignant Lung and Pleural Masses in Asbestosis and Mesothelioma

Exposure to asbestos in the workplace is the most common cause of Mesothelioma disease.  Continued research is necessary if we are ever to find a cure.  One interesting study is called, “Exposure to Asbestos and Human Disease.” By Becklake, MR – New England Journal of Medicine Vol. 306, no. 24, pp. 1480-1482. 1982.  Here is an excerpt: “During the past two decades, ill health resulting from exposure to asbestos has been the subject of extensive observation and research — probably more intensive than research on any other environmental agent. In the most direct target organ, the lung, in its pleural coverings, there is a wide spectrum of response after exposure; not only acute and chronic inflammatory diseases but also cancer of these organs may occur. Research has been stimulated by the belief that the more complete our understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the better will be the ability to control the continued use of this mineral in today’s complex technologic world.”

Another interesting study is called, “Analysis of amphibole asbestos in chrysotile and other minerals.” By Addison, J, Davies, LST – Annals of Occupational Hygiene [ANN. OCCUP. HYG.]. Vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 159-175. 1990.  Here is an excerpt: “Chrysotile asbestos and many other mineral raw materials contain amphibole minerals which may be asbestiform. There is currently no analytical method which will detect the presence of amphibole at sufficiently low limits to preclude the possibility of inadvertent exposure of persons handling these materials to hazardous airborne fibre concentrations. A method of chemical digestion of chrysotiles has been tested with regard to the determination of their tremolite contaminant content and this has been applied to a range of chrysotile and other minerals. The method improves the sensitivity of the amphibole analysis at least 10-fold giving detection limits of 0.01-0.05% in chrysotile by X-ray diffractometry.”

Another interesting study is called, “Computed tomography in the diagnosis of asbestos-related thoracic disease” by Gamsu, Gordon MD; Aberle, Denise R. MD; Lynch, David MD, BCh – Journal of Thoracic Imaging – January 1989 – Volume 4 – Issue 1.  Here is an excerpt: “Abstract – High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has improved the radiologist’s ability to detect and potentially quantify the abnormalities of asbestos exposure. It has proved to be more sensitive than chest radiography for detecting pleural plaques and for discriminating between pleural fibrosis and extrapleural fat. HRCT is also more sensitive than chest radiography or conventional CT for detecting parenchymal abnormalities in asbestos-exposed persons. The HRCT findings that correlate with other parameters of asbestosis include (1) septal and centrilobular thickening, (2) parenchymal fibrous bands, (3) honeycomb patterns, (4) subpleural density persisting in the prone position, and (5) subpleural curvilinear lines that persist in the prone position. CT has an important role in evaluating benign and malignant lung and pleural masses in asbestosis.”

Another study is called, “Effect of Long-Term Removal of Iron from Asbestos by Desferrioxamine B on Subsequent Mobilization by Other Chelators and Induction of DNA Single-Strand Breaks” by Chao C. C. and Aust A. E. – Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics – Volume 308, Issue 1, January 1994, Pages 64-69.  Here is an excerpt: “
Abstract – The long-term removal of iron from crocidolite or amosite by desferrioxamine B (DF) at pH 7.5 or 5.0 was studied. Crocidolite or amosite (1 mg/ml) was suspended in 50 mM NaCl at pH 7.5 or 5.0 with the addition of 1 mM DF for up to 90 days. Although the rate of iron mobilization decreased with time, iron was continuously mobilized from both forms of asbestos at pH 5.0 or 7.5. The amount of iron mobilized from crocidolite was at least twice that mobilized from amosite at either pH. Iron was mobilized more rapidly from crocidolite at pH 5.0 than at 7.5 for the first 15 days, but at later times the amount being mobilized at pH 7.5 became equal to or slightly greater than that at 5.0. For amosite, the mobilization at pH 5.0 was always greater than that at pH 7.5. Next, the effect of iron removal from asbestos by DF on subsequent iron mobilization by a second chelator (EDTA or citrate) and on induction of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) was studied. Asbestos, treated for up to 15 days with DF at pH 7.5, was washed to remove ferrioxamine and excess DF, then incubated with EDTA or citrate (1 mM). The rates of iron mobilization from both forms of asbestos by a second chelator decreased as more and more iron was removed by DF. Induction of DNA SSBs also decreased, reflecting the unavailability of iron to catalyze the damage. The results suggest three things. First, if long-term mobilization of iron from asbestos occurs in vivo as has been observed in vitro, it may play a role in the long-term biological effects of asbestos. Second, more rapid mobilization of iron from asbestos fibers may occur when the fibers are phagocytized by cells and maintained in phagosomes where the pH is 4.0-5.0. Third, treatment of asbestos by iron chelators, such as DF, prior to exposure to cultured cells or whole animals, may reduce the biological effects of asbestos resulting from iron, but may not completely eliminate them.”

We all owe a debt of gratitude to these fine researchers for their hard work and dedication.  If you found any of these excerpts interesting, please read the studies in their entirety.


Monty Wrobleski is the author of this article, for more information please visit the following links

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